Author: Александр Шуляк

Александр Шуляк

Координатор группы созависимых, психотерапевт
Александр Шуляк

What types of drugs are there?

Narcotic substances are chemical compounds created on the basis of components of natural or synthetic origin and affecting the mental state of a person. The effect on the human nervous system can manifest itself in the form of euphoria or perceptual disorders.

Narcotic intoxication after using psychoactive substances is accompanied by various side effects, one of which is addiction. Regular use of drugs leads to a decrease in the effect, which forces the addict to resort to increasing the dose. In addition, a dependence appears, which manifests itself in “withdrawal” during long breaks between taking drugs (“withdrawal syndrome”) and pathological craving for their repeated use.

Over the past ten years, dozens of new drugs have appeared in the world, throwing a new challenge to society and common sense. From our article you will find out what types of drugs exist, what effect they have on a person.

What drugs are there

All existing types of drugs can be divided into the following categories:

  • Opiates;
  • hemp based;
  • amphetamines;
  • ecstasy;
  • cocaine;
  • hallucinogens;
  • sleeping pills;
  • inhalants.

Opiates

They “inhibit” the activity of the nervous system, causing a feeling of euphoria, calmness. The main symptoms of drug intoxication include sluggish speech, drowsiness, constricted pupils, tachycardia.

This category of drugs includes natural and synthetic morphine-like compounds. The former are synthesized from poppy straws. Physical and mental dependence is formed after 2-3 doses. They have a strong destructive effect on the body, addiction is difficult to treat. These include poppy straw, heroin, acetylated opium (obtained from processed plant sap), methadone (a synthetic drug in the form of a solution or powder).

Hemp Based

These include hashish, marijuana. When used, they change the consciousness of a person. Typical signs of drunkenness include unusual talkativeness, increased appetite and thirst, reddening of the whites of the eyes and dilated pupils, and high blood pressure. In case of an overdose, impaired coordination of movements, aggressiveness, panic attacks, and hallucinations are possible.

Amphetamines

Drugs that have a stimulating effect on the nervous system. In the vast majority of cases, they are intended for intravenous administration. Drugs are derived from drugs that contain ephedrine. Depending on the type of substance, the effect of the narcotic substance lasts for 2-12 hours. The main symptoms of intoxication: tachycardia, high blood pressure, dilated pupils, sexual liberation, talkativeness.

Ecstasy

Under this name, synthetic drugs from the group of amphetamines are combined. The effect after taking them lasts up to 6 hours. Release form: tablets of various colors (very often with a picture). Because of the high cost of ecstasy, drug addicts quite often replace it with heroin or amphetamines. The symptoms of intoxication are identical to the body’s response to amphetamines. Under the influence of the drug, a person is able to withstand heavy loads, not to feel tired, but in the future this leads to a breakdown, apathy, drowsiness.

Cocaine

A psychostimulant drug of natural origin, the raw material for which is coca leaves. Addiction develops gradually, but it is difficult to treat. One of the side effects of cocaine is a significant decrease in the sensitivity of the upper body. Signs of taking cocaine can be an increased heart rate, high blood pressure, dilated pupils of the eyes, and irregular biorhythms.

Hallucinogens

Psychedelic substances of various origins and composition, the use of which leads to a change in human consciousness. Symptoms of drug intoxication are increased talkativeness, strong appetite and thirst, acute perception of sounds and colors, tachycardia, high blood pressure, hallucinations, euphoria. The most popular drugs in this category are based on lysergic acid (LSD). They are powder or liquid without taste, color, odor. The acid-soaked piece of paper falls under the tongue. The effect occurs in 30-60 minutes and lasts up to 12 hours.

Sleeping pills

Sedatives, among which the most popular and dangerous are various derivatives based on barbiturate acid. The main symptoms of intoxication with sleeping pills are slurred speech, impaired coordination of movements, aggressive behavior, and mental instability. In most cases, it is administered orally (by mouth). Can cause addiction with prolonged use.

Inhalers

Volatile substances that cause drug intoxication. They are components of various household chemicals (glue, varnish, gasoline, solvents, aerosols from harmful insects, etc.). Intoxication occurs when a large amount of an active substance enters the body. The main signs: hallucinations, impaired coordination of movements, atypical behavior.